[MUSIC] Developing nuclear arms control agreements. The Russian Federation and the United States are trying to establish equal limitations for both sides on different types of nuclear weapons. In the beginning of this process, they were talking about limitations on a very high level. There were limitations on weapons, which counted by thousands of launching systems and warheads. Now the new treaty signed in 2010 established limitations on a lower level, but it is still quite a lot of weapons which each side can possess. So how can we understand whether the opposite side complied with these obligations and have no more than certain number of weapons? We cannot calculate all the time every single launching system and every single warhead. And of course, nobody want to do it. It is still a weapon and weapon is a fear of national secrets. So we need somehow to understand how we can calculate the opposite side's weapons, and how the opposite side can calculate our weapons, our launching systems and warheads. And what weapons have to be taken into account? And for example, how we can make sure that the range of missiles of the opposite side is the declared range, the range which the opposite side declared. All the problems have to be resolved before we sign a treaty. To resolve that problem, specific counting rules were established, as you know. Sometimes these counting rules look quite weird, because sometimes they don't coincide with the reality. But there is a great work behind each word in these counting rules. And each word in these rules means a lot. The system of counting rules may vary from one treaty to another. And the same systems, the same types of weapons could be counted in different ways in one or another treaty. For example, contemporary heavy intercontinental ballistic missiles can launch up to ten warheads. When the treaty on strategic arms reductions was signed in 1991, it was almost impossible to calculate again and again the number of warheads uploaded on each missile in Russia or in the United States. So they decided to establish a counting rule, that for each intercontinental ballistic missile, a maximal number of warheads have to be counted. But in Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty of 2010, the situation was different. Now it is calculated according to the reality. It is possible now to calculate how many warheads are uploaded on each single ballistic missile. And this is why the new counting rules were established in the new treaty. And of course, it is possible to calculate that today, because according to the new START treaty of 2010, each side have to deploy much less missiles than previously it was allowed by START I treaty. It is even more difficult to calculate how many cruise missiles have to be counted for each heavy bomber. It is quite easy to upload additional missiles to each bomber or remove these missiles from a bomber. It would take several hours, so it's almost impossible to calculate how many missiles are deployed on each heavy bomber at any given moment. This is why it have always been a problem for negotiators to establish counting rules for heavy bombers. For example, in START I treaty, a very complicated formula was established for each of two sides. I quote, for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, each heavy bomber equipped for long-range nuclear ALCMs, up to a total of 180 such heavy bombers, shall be attributed with eight warheads. Each heavy bomber equipped for long-range nuclear ACLMs in excess of 180 such heavy bombers shall be attributed with a number of warheads equal to the number of long-range nuclear ALCMs for which it is actually equipped. You see, very complicated formula, but the same formula was established for the United States. Each heavy bomber equipped for long-range nuclear ALCMs, up to a total of 150 such heavy bombers, shall be attributed with ten warheads. Each heavy bomber equipped for long-range nuclear ALCMs in excess of 150 such heavy bombers shall be attributed with the number of warheads equal to the number of long-range nuclear ACLMs for which it is actually equipped. These complicated formulas were established just to make it more simple for both sides to count how many weapons, how many launching systems and warheads the opposite side possess at any given moment. Although, it may not coincide with the reality. In 2010, when the new START treaty was signed, the negotiators decided to change counting rules for heavy bombers. And I quote, one nuclear warhead shall be counted for each deployed heavy bomber. That simple formula made it much more easy to calculate how many warheads are there on deployed launching systems for each side.