All right, this is the easiest way to do some netting in this will. This is for anybody who doesn't like math, or to have to figure out calculations and stuff. What you do, is you draw out these dots, eight dots, and when you're done drawing them, give them a bit value, because we're indicating the bits, the last eight bits in the subnet mask. After we've drawn the eight bids, and we've numbered them, 1, 2, 4, 8 because we're doubling the number each time, until we get to 128, under that we're going to put n minus 2. Now, some classes like in Cisco will not require the minus 2 in the networks. I'm going to go with the, this way. If you don't have to, you know what to do to fix it. All right, and we're going to start numbering them. Under these bits, starting with two, and we're going to double it all the way. We should end up with 256, then we're going to do the host minus 2, under that. I'm going to start on this end because I like to count, and keep from small to bigger, so 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 until I get over here and I should have 256. Now, I added this last line because I saw another video, that makes sense to show some people have a hard time with this. The slash indication just tells you how many bits have already, been used for the network. We know that these are eight each of them. Each one of these numbers equal eight bits, because if you add up all these numbers, the bit values, they equal 255. All the bits and the numbers in front over here, are these numbers are all one, so there's eight bits, and they all equal, they're all turned on all of them. That's why we've got a slash 24 in this in this situation. You'd put a zero here, this would be a slash 24 situation. We're going to make it bigger. We're going to actually borrow some of these bits, and I'm going to show you how it's very simple, and there's going to be an example. I'm going to show you how to set up the whole thing, so that you can do it for the class. After you did the the H minus 2 line, which is pretty easy to remember because just in reverse, just like this, only in reverse. I say, go ahead put in the C slash 24, you don't have to, but it just makes it easier as part of a calculator, so that once you've made your decision, you know what the indicator number is. I mean, it's easy enough, you know that it's 24 and then you whatever. If you borrow three bits then it's going to be 27. If you borrow 4228, that's all common sense, but you put it there, makes it a little nicer for the calculator. My teacher said I need six networks, six, seven networks in this situation, or six networks. I'm going to go ahead and do that. I go to the network and I say, hey, I need six. Well, my teachers old fashioned. He said, take away two. I'm going to have to smash slide over, and look at the number. I'm going to have to find a number that's actually, bigger than the one he asked for. I'm looking for six. I come over here eight bigger than six, and if I take away two, that works. Still works with six. I know that I need to borrow three bits. In order to get the six networks that he wants me to get. All right, so now I indicated that I need to use the three bit, so I'm going to block off those three bits from the rest over here, by putting a line down the middle here. What's that line mean? That line tells me everything. All my answer is in that line, and you're just going to be amazed when you see that. This is it. Everything you need to know in that line. Well, we need to know what the subnet mask is going to be. We've borrowed three bits. We've drawn the line to separate it out. It's told us that our slash indicator is 27. That's going to tell us what our subnet mask is. Well, how? This is how. When you borrow three bits. These bit values were added together, and when you add them together, put them all in one piece, you get a number. What is that number? One twenty-eight plus 64 is 192, plus 32 is 224. This number will be 224. I drop 224 in here and now I have my subnet mask. Based on these three numbers, because I borrowed these three bits, and I drew this line. What else did it tell me? Well, it told me what the slash number is. Which coincides with this. Slash 27 means this number. When you make the calculator, and we know that we started with 24, each one of these have a number on them, and we know what they are. We knew that this indicates these added up, so we can associate the /27 with 255.255.255.224. Why? Because there's 27 bits. Remember, 8 plus 8 plus 8 is 24. Then this tells us these three bits were borrowed, and we added up the bit value, and that's how we got that. What else does the line tell us? Well, it tells us how many networks we're going to get. We already knew that because that's what brought us here. Tells us how many posts we're going to get. Of course, we know it's already told us that because of these three. But that's another issue that we wanted to remember, that the subnet mask is made up of the numbers, the bits that we've added up. That's where we get that very important information, we got to have that subnet mask, we got to know that we can get six networks, or in the Cisco case we can get 30, 2 minus 2 hosts, and that our slash indicator is 27. But we always want to remember that the hosts are on the right hand side of the bar. Well, what else does it tell? It also tells us our magic number. Our magic number is right here next to the bar. What is the magic number? Whenever we move this bar, our magic number is going to be on the left hand side of that bar. We're going to tell you what that magic number is, and how to use it. Let's do the magic number now. We're going to start out and we're going to put down here three words, and we're going to start out with net, and then range, and then broadcast. You might have a network or a worksheet that looks something like that with the network, range, and broadcast, but I'm just going to show it here, as if you're writing it out on paper. I'm going to use a standard network, something that you would see inside your house, probably everybody has this inside your house because it's a local network. Your IP addresses on your computers and stuff are totally separated from what's on the outside of the world, so you probably have 192.168.1.1. If you went to your browser and typed in that 192.168.1.1 in your browser, if you're in Verizon, it'll take you to your wireless router. Most people have wireless routers now, so if you type that in you're going to go to your router. If you have the password and username, you can get in. Remember, in this example, the professor wanted us to get six networks, so that's what we're doing. Of course, the main network was 192.168.1.1, so we're doing the second one or the first subnet, and that is our magic number. This is where we're getting our magic number and how we're using it. Remember the first three numbers in the network stay the same. How do we know that? Because all these three numbers are locked in with 255s. That means these three are locked in, and they can't change. We won't be changing those at all in this network, we're just going to deal with that last set of numbers there, that's your last octet. Then you want to know the range in the broadcast and each network, and we're going to do that. But I'm going to show you the easier way to get to that. We all know how to add, so what we're going to do is we're going to add 32 one after another down the line. I'm just going to show you like three or so. I wrote down four of the networks, you're going to need to keep going, but you get the idea. We need to get to the range, but before we get there, the trick is we want to get to the broadcast over here first, at least in this case. How do we get to the broadcast? How do we know what the broadcast is? Well, it's always going to be one less than the next network. If this network is 64, the broadcast over here has to be 63. I put the 192.168.1.63, so you don't get confused, but I'm just going to put the one last thing down as I go down here. I'm not going to put the 192.168.1. What is the range? The range is the numbers between 32 and 63, so the first number in the range would be 33. The last number would be 62. Because it's the last number that buts up to this number. You could see the network is 32 then the range is going to be the one right after that 33, and the range goes all the way up until it bumps into the broadcast. The broadcast bumps into the next network. That's how you know you can't go any farther. Next after I did my first network and the way I got to this broadcast was because I did the second network and it showed me that I could only go that far. Then the range squeezes in between these two numbers. Now, my next range is going to have to squeeze in between these two numbers, which is going to be 65 through 94. Now, you can see the examples continue when you first wrote down your networks and then you could do your broadcast over here because you knew that the broadcast had to be one less than this network. Then you could do the range because you knew that they were between the network and the broadcast, so you could jam them in there. That's what you did and you kept going until you got to the amount of networks that he required. Now, you have your subnet mask with your slash indication of 27 and your subnet mask is 224. We knew what your magic number was and we used it here in our network, and the way we got our subnet mask was by adding up these three digits because we borrowed these three bits. Remember, we went through the process by starting out, by drawing these eight dots that indicate this last number. Remember that the slash indication that just tells you that remember, each one of these numbers are eight bits. A Class A would only have a slash eight because only eight bits have been used up unless they borrowed into it. Then Class B, just a basic one, would be 16, because you've got a A then you got a class C, which we're using is 24. Let's start out with 24 and then we have to borrow bits. The numbers get bigger, remember that. That's how these two tie together. This means this, this means this. These two numbers mean the same thing in the computer world. Now, I would suggest that you draw this indicator line in paper so that you can move it if you have several things that you have to do, if you're just doing one, then it doesn't matter, you can write it in ink, but if you're doing more than one, go ahead and do this in pencil so that you can erase this little indicator. But always remember that your networks are to the left of the line, posts are to the right, don't forget to take away two, and if your class doesn't require taking away two per networks, make sure you find that out before you take the test or whatever you're taking. Now, no matter what the professor asks you, if he says, I need 12 networks and you can just slide over here, you can go to Mr. Annan and say Mr. Annan I need 12 and you slide over until you get to 12. Well, if you can't get to 12, you've got to go get to the number that's over 12. You put the number here. You put the line here. Then you put your line pointing toward your networks and your line pointing toward your hosts. It would tell you what your number is here. Of course, you would have to add up the four bits and that would change this number to 240. It would change this number to 28. Then all these numbers added together to 40. So that's how you do it. If you have any questions or any problems, go ahead and message me on here and if I can get to you or if you don't get lost in the message world, go ahead and message me again later if I don't answer you back. Good talking to you guys. Talk to you later. Bye.