This module applies basic principles of fluid mechanics to practical problems in hydraulics, hydrology, and groundwater flow. We first discuss the generalized and one-dimensional momentum theorem and apply it to various typical problems. Flow in pipes and non-circular conduits is discussed beginning with the Bernoulli equation accounting for energy losses and gains. Calculation of head loss due to friction and minor losses due to valves and other accoutrements are presented. Friction losses are calculated for laminar Poiseuille flow and turbulent flow using the Moody chart; examples include computation of pressure drop in laminar pipe flow and turbulent water flow. Methods to calculate flow in pipe networks consisting of multiple connecting pipes and other fittings is then discussed with examples for parallel pipes. Pipes and turbines are then discussed along with their basic equations and definitions. Characteristic curves, especially of centrifugal pumps, are presented and it is shown how to match a pump to a system head.Flow in open channels are discussed including classification of flow types and prediction of uniform flow by the Manning equation. The use of specific energy concepts to solve gradually varying flows, and the importance of the Froude number and sub and supercritical flows are presented. Predictions of hydraulic jumps and flow over weirs are given.Hydrological principles include predictions of surface runoff by the curve number method and peak runoff by the rational formula. Groundwater principles include Darcy’s law for flow through porous media and prediction of drawdown by wells in confined and unconfined aquifers by the Dupuit and Thiem equations.In all cases, basic ideas and equations are presented along with sample problems that illustrate the major ideas and provide practice on expected exam questions.Time: Approximately 3 hours | Difficulty Level: Medium