Another common structural steel member that you will encounter in modern construction is that of metal decking. Metal decking is actually a terrific example of a permanent form that will be used for concrete, which was covered in a previous module. In high rise structures, metal decking will typically cover the entire floor area. And can be quantified as such unless otherwise indicated on the construction documents. So to recap, specifications will be indicated on the plans. And that translates to measuring the area indicated in square footage. That'll be length times width. You will using your scale in order to quantify the square footage indicated on the construction documents. Structural steel is connected in a variety of different ways. In modern construction, the method will typically be either a welding application or a plate bolted through or a combination of the two in order to connect the members together. For our purposes, we will not be quantifying the individual connections at the structural members, as this is typically the role of a structural steel contractor. To capture the quantities of a connection, apply roughly a 10 to 13% addition to the total tonnage of all the steel for your project. Structural steel design and application. As you can see on the screen, this is real life example of how structural steel components will be represented on a set of construction documents. Each of the individual members are annotated, and thus group similar members together on your estimate as this is paramount for organization purposes. Lengths are quantified by use of a construction scale or technology to ensure accurate quantities are measured. As you can see by our example, there is a number of different members that are indicated on these plans. You have wide flange or W members. You have some WT members that are enlisted in here. You have hollow structural steel members and you also have joisting. Okay, so for our first example, you are going to be playing the role of a cost manager representing XYZ client and you have been asked to perform a quantity take off of a Structural Steel Plan. We know that there are 10 W14 by 26 members, each of which are 10 feet in length. And we also know that there are 6 W12 by 40 members. Two of which are 10 feet in length, and 4 of which are 12 feet in In length. In order to quantify, first we must calculate the total length of the W14 X 26 members. We know that 10 members are 10 feet long each, thus for a total quantity of 100 linear feet. Secondly, you must quantify the total length of the W12 by 40 members. Understanding there are six members total, we first quantify the 2 shorter members. Two members times 10 feet brings you to a total quantity of 20 linear feet. And then the 4 longer members at 12 linear feet each with a total measurement of 48 linear feet. Thus this brings you to a total length of 68 linear feet. Next you must calculate the weights by the group members. And then later calculate the connections. Starting with the W14 by 26 member, you will multiply 100 total linear feet times 26 pounds per linear foot, for a grand total of 2,600 pounds. Calculating the connections, we are adding a multiplier of 10%, which brings us to 2,860 pounds for this particular member. Similarly for the W12 by 40 sections, we are quantifying a total of 68 linear feet times 40 pounds per linear foot. For a total of 2,720 pounds. Once again, adding in a 10% factor for the connections, we can calculate the total weight at 2,992. Finally, we must convert the pounds into tonnage. Starting with W14 by 26 member, we'll take 2,860 divided by 2,000 and that bring us to 1.43 US Tons. Secondly, we will convert the W12 by 40 member. 2,992 divided by 2,000 for a total of 1.50 US Tons. As you can see by our example, this is how the quantity take off analysis will be depicted into your overall cost estimate. You are the cost manager representing client XYZ and you've been asked to perform a quantity take off of a structural steel plan. We understand that there are 10 W14 by 26 members, each of which are 10 feet in length. And we also understand that there are 6 W12 by 40 members. Two of which are ten feet in length. And four of which are 12 feet in length. Stay organized. First we're going to calculate out the W14 x 26 members. We understand that there are 10 members total, each of which are 10 feet in length. Thus 10 times 10 brings you to Into a total of 100 linear feet. Next, we're going to calculate the W12 by 40 members. We know there are 6 total members. At varying lengths. Two of the members are calculated at 10 feet. Four of the members are calculated at 12 feet. Thus the calculation becomes 2 times 10. Which brings you to 20, and 4 times 12, which brings you to 48. Adding these two sections together, because they are part of the same type of steel, brings you to a total of 68 feet. So, similar to the first member, we need to multiply the linear footage quantify, which is 68 linear feet times the weight per foot of this individual structural member. Thus the calculation becomes 68 times 40, which equals 2,720 pounds. Next, we need to quantify the connections for each one of the weights that we have discovered during our quantity take off. In order to capture that, going back to our example, we're going to apply a 10% to each one of the weights. Starting with the W14 by 26 member, that calculation is simply 2,600 pounds times the principal and a 10% increase which brings you to a total of 2,860 pounds. Similarly, we will be multiplying 2,720 times the principal at a 10% increase which brings us to a grand total of 2,992. Finally, we want to convert from pounds into tons. That is accomplished by dividing 2,860 by 2,000 which equals 1.43 tons. Similarly for the W12 by 40 member. Converting to tonnage, we divide be 2,992 by 2,000, which brings us to a total of 1.50 tons, rounded. Thus, these are the quantities that you will capture for each of the respective members in our example. Again, here you can see how we quantify each of the final structural members for Example number 1.